Patterns have a form of expressions. They are used to match an
expression and decompose it. Pattern can have form a vector value, a
table value, a function call, an identifier, or a special
"_". Anything else in the pattern
is treated as an expression. The simplest way is to treat a pattern,
e.g. identfier, as an expression is to put it into paretheses.
Pattern = Expr Expr = "_" | "..."
A separate wildcard matches any value. Identifier also matches any value but additionally the matched value is assigned to the pattern variable denoted by the identifier. An expression in a pattern matches any value equal to the the expression value.
A vector pattern matches a vector value. All vector pattern elements should match all subsequent elements of the vector value. If a vector pattern element has a form of another pattern than it matches the corresponding vector value element iff the element pattern matches the corresponding element value of the vector value.
A vector pattern element can also have a form
pattern. The value of the expression before
converted into an integer value by default. If the value after the
conversion is not integer, the exception
optype is generated.
The value can be zero or negative. In this case matching the pattern
element is always successful and this matching does not correspond any
element of the matched vector value. Othewise, the pattern
":" should match the corresponding elements in the vector
value. The exact number of the elements is defined by the expression
":". The matched element values should be equal
unless the pattern after
":" is a wildcard
The last element of the vector pattern can be
matches the rest elements in the matched vector value. The following
are examples of vector patterns (a, b, and c are identifies of pattern
[a, b] // a and b are pattern variables [(a), b] // value of earlier declared a is used [a, ...] [2, [a, b], 3 : c, 4 : _]
A table pattern matches a table value. All table
pattern elements should match all elements of the table value. If a
table pattern element has a form
expr, then the table value
should have an element with a key given by the expression.
A table pattern element can also have a form
pattern. In this case the table value also should have an
element with a key given by the expression. Additionally the element
value with given key should match the pattern after
The last element of the table pattern can be
matches the rest elements in the matched table value. The following
are examples of table patterns (a, b, and c are identifies of the
tab ["k1", "k2"] tab ["k1" : _, ...] tab ["k" @ 1, [a, b], "k2" : c, ...]
An object pattern has a form of function/class call. An object
pattern matches a class/function instance. The function/class
should be a subtype of class/function given by the value of the
expression in the pattern before
"(". The parameters in the
pattern should match all corresponding instance parameter values. The
number of the values is taken from function/class given by the
expression in the pattern before
"(", not from function class
of the instance. Remember that the arguments corresponding
"..." in function/class parameter definitions become one
The last parameter of the object pattern can be
matches the rest arguments of the corresponding object. The following
are examples of object patterns (
a, b, and
identifies of the pattern variables):
leaf (10) node (_, a) node (node (a, b), leaf (c))
"..." can be used only in patterns - they
can not be used in expressions.